Aloe Vera Leaf Structure

The Anatomy of the leaf

The plant has triangular, fleshy leaves with serrated edges, yellow tubular flowers and fruits that contain numerous seeds. Each leaf is composed of three layers:

1) An inner clear gel that contains 99% water and rest is made of glucomannans, amino acids, lipids, sterols and vitamins.

2) The middle layer of latex which is the bitter yellow sap and contains anthraquinones and glycosides.

3) The outer thick layer of 15–20 cells called as rind which has protective function and synthesizes carbohydrates and proteins. Inside the rind are vascular bundles responsible for transportation of substances such as water (xylem) and starch (phloem)


The interior of a aloe leaf.

If you cut a transverse leaf aloe you will observe the following sections:

  • Bark – composition
  • The juice in pouches
  • Sticky substance – mucilage
  • Fillet gel jelly – storage

It has a thickness of approximately 15 cell layers, dark green with rough – waxy surface. The roughness is due to large calcium and magnesium content. The color indicates the presence chlorophyll which uses sunlight, carbon dioxide and water for the production of aloe gel. Beneath the cortex are vascular bundles or tubes of wood and plywood.

This is the juice or the transport system of the plant, which takes water and minerals from the roots and transporting the products of photosynthesis in the gel to be stored. Aloe gel contains over 75 nutrients and 200 other compounds, including 18 amino acids, 12 vitamins and 20 metals, trace elements such as magnesium, manganese, zinc, calcium, iron and selenium.